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Sample 1 : Death of Judas by Paul Claudel

Important : Dans tous mes échantillons de traduction, j'ai d'abord copié une traduction déjà parue afin de comparer et contraster les multiples choix de traduction disponibles à un traducteur pour le même texte. J’ai mis le nom du traducteur (à moins qu'il/elle n'apparaisse pas dans le texte original) à la tète de leur traduction. A droite vous trouverez ma propre traduction avec, en tête, « Myself ». Si vous lisez les échantillons afin de faire une estimation, veuillez, s'il vous plaît, vous assurer que vous regardiez bien ma propre traduction pour l’estimation , et non pas celle de l'autre traducteur, citée pour comparaison. Il se peut que vous préfériez le travail de l'autre traducteur – au quel cas je ne voudrais pas qu'en me donnant votre commande vous fassiez erreur.

























Texts are in Times Roman font as they would be in print. (My comments are also in Times Roman for the sake of continuity).

Important note: In all my sample translations, I have first copied an existing translation by another translator in order to compare and contrast the different choices a translator can make for the same text. I have put the translator's name (when known) at the top of their translation. You will find this translation in the middle section. In the right hand section is my own translation which is headed « Myself ». If you are looking at the samples with a view to evaluating my work, please make sure you are looking at my translation for the evaluation not that of the translation I have given for comparison. You may prefer the other translator's work – in which case I would not want you to make a mistake when commissioning work from myself.

En dessous de me ma propre traduction, vous trouverez sous « notes and comparisons » un décorticage, phrase par phrase des deux différentes traductions. Je vous rappele : la version originale, française, se trouve a gauche (fond jaune), la traduction « pour comparer » est au milieu (fond turquoise) et ma propre traduction se trouve à droite (fond gris). Avant de faire un jugement, je vous demande de bien vouloir prendre en compte ces trois choses : 1. Est-ce que ma traduction adhère fidèlement aux pensées exprimées par l'auteur français ? 2. Est-ce que ma traduction se lit comme une traduction ou plutôt comme un ouvrage nouveau, écrit par un auteur anglais de souche ? 3. Est-ce qu'il y a une lecture rapide et facile de la signification ? Les significations sont-elles un peu floues ? Ou au contraire : précises et bien définies?

Underneath my own translation you will find an in depth, sentence by sentence analysis of the translation with notes on how the two different translations differ. To remind you: The French original is on the left, the comparison translation is in the middle and my own translation with notes is on the right. You can leave comments under my notes. In evaluating my own translation I would like you to judge me on three things: 1. Is my translation faithful to the meaning and style of the original? 2. Does my translation read like a translation or does it read like an original work by a native English speaker? 3. How quickly and easily does the meaning register? Are there meanings which are a bit wooly? Or are all the meanings absolutely clear and sharp?

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Mort de Judas par: Paul Claudel http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paul_Claudel
On ne peut vraiment pas dire que chez moi ç'ait été ce que les gens appellent un feu de paille. Ni un enthousiasme puéril qui m'ait entraîné, ni un sentiment que je ne vois guerre moyen de qualifier autrement que de « sentimental .» C’était quelque chose d’absolument sérieux, un intérêt profond. Je voulais en avoir le cœur net, je voulais savoir où Il allait. De son cote, quand Il m'a appelé, je suis bien forcé de supposer que distinctement Il savait ce qu’il faisait. Pour Le suivre sans hesiter j'ai sacrifié ma famille, mes amis, ma fortune, ma position. Il y a toujours eu chez moi une espèce de curiosité scientifique ou psychologique, appelez ça comme vous voudrez, et en même temps un goût d'aventure et de spéculation. Toutes ces histoires de perle inestimable, de domaines mystérieux on ne sait où qui rapporte cent pour un, de Royaume imminent dont les charges nous seront distribuées, il faut avouer que tout cela était de nature a enflammer dans le cœur d'un jeune homme les plus nobles ambitions. J'ai mordu à l’hameçon. D’ailleurs je ne suis pas le seul à m’être laissé prendre. Il y avait tous ces bon racleurs de poissons. Mais d'autre part je voyais des personnalités abondantes et considérées comme Lazare, des femmes du monde, des autorités en Israel comme Joseph et Nicodème se prosterner a Ses pieds.

Death of Judas by Paul Claudel - Unknown Translator (who I call UT and “she” in my notes)
You can't really say that with me it was what people call a flash in the pan. Nor a childish enthusiasm which fascinated me, more a sentiment which I find no way of describing otherwise than as “sentimental”. It was something absolutely serious, a deep interest. I wanted to get to the bottom of it, I wanted to know what He was up to. As for Him, when He called me, I am forced to suppose that He knew distinctly what He was doing. In order to follow Him I sacrificed without hesitation my family, my friends, my wealth and position. There has always been in me a kind of scientific or psychological curiosity, call it what you will, and at the same time a taste for adventure and speculation. All those stories of a pearl of great value, of mysterious property somewhere or other which yields one hundred to one, of a Kingdom at hand whose custody will be given to us, I have to confess that all of that was of such a natures as to ignite in the heart of a young man the noblest ambitions. I took the bait in my mouth. Moreover I wasn't the only one to let myself be caught. There were all those fine fish scrapers. And besides I saw many wealthy and important personalities like Lazarus, society women, authorities in Israel like Joseph and Nicodemus prostrating themselves at His feet.

Death of Judas by Paul Claudel - Translator - Myself (Chris Parkinson)
You could not really say it was what people call a flash in the pan with me. Neither was it some childish fancy which motivated me, nor some feeling I could only describe as « sentimental ». It was something deadly serious, a profound interest. I wanted to be clear in my own mind, I wanted to know where he was going. From his perspective, I can only assume that - quite clearly - he knew what he was doing when he called me. To follow Him without hesitation, I sacrificed my family, my friends, my wealthand my position. I have always had a sort of scientific or psychological curiosity, call it what you will, as well as a taste for adventure and risk. All those stories of of priceless pearls , of far off domains which yield a hundred to one, of a Kingdom coming which we will have a share in governing, one has to admit that it was all the kind of thing to kindle the noblest ambitions in the heart of a young man, . I swallowed it hook, line and sinker. Moreover , I was not the only one who got caught. There were all those fine rakers of fish. There was also the fact that I saw respected people of substance like Lazarus, socialites and people of authority in Israel like Joseph and Nicodemus prostrating themselves at his feet.

On ne sait jamais. Après tout, depuis que les Romains sont arrivés on peut dire que l'on a vu de toutes les couleurs. Moi, j'ai voulu savoir au juste ce qu'il en était et suivre la chose de bout en bout.

You can never tell. After all, since the Romans came, you could say we have seen every type possible. Well, I wanted to know exactly what it was about and see it through.

One can never tell. After all, since the Romans arrived we have really been put through it. Me? well I just wanted to know what it was all about and see it right through to the end.

J'ose dire que parmi les Douze c’était moi de beaucoup le plus instruit et le plus distingué. J’étais un crédit pour la troupe. Évidemment, il y avait Simon Pierre, on n'aurait pas eu le cœur de le chasser ou de lui refuser la première place. Il n'y avait qu' à regarder ses bons yeux de chien affectueux, et cette grimace d'enfant qui va pleurer quand on lui adressait des reproches, ça lui arrivait plus souvent qu' à son tour. Moi, j'ai toujours été correct. J'avais mon service, il n'y avait pas a m'en demander plus. Autrement c'est le désordre. On appréciait tout de même mon jugement, mes manières, ma connaissance du monde et des Écritures, mon savoir-faire avec les clients. J'ai été un des premiers à passer Apôtre, un de ceux à qui on a passé une corde autour du cou, ce que vous appelez maintenant une étole.

I might say that among the Twelve, I was by far the most cultivated and the most refined. I was a credit to the group. Of course, there was Simon Peter and no one would have had the heart to send him away or to refuse him first place. You had only to look at his good eyes of an affectionate dog, and that face of a child who is going to cry when you scold him. That happened to him more often than he deserved. Ialways kept to the rules. I had my duties and no one asked me to do any more. Otherwise there would have been disorder. All the same, they were appreciative of my judgment, my manners, my knowledge of the world and of Holy Scripture, my tact with clients. I was one of the first to be promoted Apostle, one of those around whose neck they placed a rope, and which you now call a stole.

I dare say that among the twelve I was by far the most educated and distinguished. I was a credit to the outfit. Of course Simon Peter was there, no-one would have had the heart to chase him away or refuse him first place. You would only have to look at those faithful doggy eyes and that frown of a child who is going to burst into tears when scolded, and he had more than his fair share of scoldings. Me, I was always proper. I did my duty, you could not ask for more. Otherwise things become disorderly. Anyway, my judgement, my manners, my knowledge of the world and of the scriptures and my skill with handling customers were all appreciated. I was one of the first to pass the grade of Apostle, one of those to whom one placed a rope around the neck – what you would call a stole nowadays.

Notes and comparisons :

Paul Claudel PC
On ne peut vraiment pas dire que chez moi ç'ait été ce que les gens appellent un feu de paille. Ni un enthousiasme puéril qui m'ait entraîné, ni un sentiment que je ne vois guerre moyen de qualifier autrement que de « sentimental .»

Unknown translator UT
You can't really say that with me it was what people call a flash in the pan. Nor a childish enthusiasm which fascinated me, more a sentiment which I find no way of describing otherwise than as “sentimental”.

Myself
You could not really say it was a flash in the pan with me. Neither was it some childish fancy which motivated me, nor some feeling I could only describe as « sentimental »

*“... On ne peut pas dire...” - “.. You cannot say...” The French is in the present. I have put it into the present conditional: “....you could not say...” Why? This is Judas justifying himself. My ear tells me that in English we would use this form in this circumstance.

*The UT has translated “sentiment” by “sentiment” whereas in fact the correct translation for “sentiment” is “feeling”. Sentiment is a synonym of feeling in English but has several meanings, one of them being “maudlin emotion”. I prefer not to muddy the waters and use the direct translation which is “feeling” . A sentimental sentiment does not read well in English whereas in French it does because there are no synonyms you could use for the French “sentiment”.

*The UT has translated “enthusiasme” by “enthusiasm”. They are very similar in meaning and use in both languages. However, I feel that the correct translation in this context is “fancy” as in “childish fancy” which is an exact translation of the French and it is idiomatic.

*The UT has mistranslated the second half of the sentence. She has misunderstood. The French is “...ni...ni...” - “....neither.....nor....”. Judas is saying that it was neither a flash in the pan nor a sentimental feeling. (Was she rushing it because she was not being paid enough?) It just shows that you can only translate what you can understand.

Paul Claudel
C’était quelque chose d’absolument sérieux, un intérêt profond. Je voulais en avoir le cœur net, je voulais savoir où Il allait.

UT
It was something absolutely serious, a deep interest. I wanted to get to the bottom of it, I wanted to know what He was up to.

Myself
It was something deadly serious, a profound interest. I wanted to be clear in my own mind, I wanted to know where he was going.

* I have used “deadly” for “absolument” rather than “absolutely” because “deadly serious” is much more idiomatic English than “absolutely serious”.

*“Profond” can be translated as deep or profound. I like profound here because it has the extra connotation of “wisdom”.

*“le coeur net” = Savoir à quoi s'en tenir. I think both our translations get the sense of this French expression which means to know clearly what is going on and not to have any illusions.

*“.....je voulais savoir ou Il allait...” What does Judas (PC) mean? The UT thinks he means that Jesus was up to something. This sounds like something you would say about someone who is acting suspiciously. PC has Judas as a superficial toady, someone always looking after his own interest, who understands the price of everything and the value of nothing. Its quite likely that PC would have him being suspicious of Jesus. “... the up to something....” . Judas putting himself forward as some sort of guardian. For once I have given a literal translation because I don't think “....savoir ou il allait....” is some sort of idiomatic expression for which you have to find an equivalent in English. I think it means just that.

Paul Claudel
De son coté, quand Il m'a appelé, je suis bien forcé de supposer que distinctement Il savait ce qu’il faisait.

UT
As for Him, when He called me, I am forced to suppose that He knew distinctly what He was doing.

Myself
From his perspective, I can only assume that - quite clearly - he knew what he was doing when he called me.

*I could have used “..........I can only assume he knew exactly what he was doing....” which is idiomatic English and fits the sense perfectly. However, PC has used a slightly choppy sentence which puts extra emphasis on “distinctement”. Normally you would say, “...supposer qu'Il savait distinctement ce qu'Il faisait....” So PC has reversed the order. I think he wants to give us a litle jolt here. The unusual construction in French does make the sentence stand out but I think this is Claudel giving himself away here and himself putting this emphasis on “quite clearly” albeit in the mouth of his Judas who is glib and shallow. Claudel is slightly hamstrung because he has to let his Judas reveal himself to us by his own speech. In the text the emphasis on “quite clearly” reads as if Judas (PC) is saying: “Jesus quite clearly knew what as asset I would be” but I think this is smuggling in Claudel's own little jolt at the same time. This “quite clearly” is of course very important to PC and should be to us the reader. In his account Judas has not the slightest idea why Jesus has chosen him. It should really be his overriding preoccupation but his overriding preoccupation is himself. PC was a deeply religious catholic scholar so I think it safe to assume that PC would imagine that Jesus was omniscient & read Judas' character perfectly and knew that he would later betray him. I have tried to mimic the slightly unusual rhythm of the French while still keeping it fairly idiomatic and natural in English but with a slightly unusual construction so that you get the little jolt which I think Claudel intended. The UT has ignored the perfectly obvious and accurate idiomatic translation for “distinctement” which is “quite clearly”. “Distinctly” in this context sounds stilted, a literal translation. The only way you could justify it would be by saying that Paul Claudel is deliberately putting stilted speech into Judas' mouth. However, a reading of the text reveals Judas speaking fluently and using plenty of idiomatic expressions and some colloquial expressions elsewhere.

Paul Claudel
Pour Le suivre sans hesiter j'ai sacrifié ma famille, mes amis, ma fortune, ma position. Il y a toujours eu chez moi une espèce de curiosité scientifique ou psychologique, appelez ça comme vous voudrez, et en même temps un goût d'aventure et de spéculation.

Unknown Translator
In order to follow Him I sacrificed without hesitation my family, my friends, my wealth and position. There has always been in me a kind of scientific or psychological curiosity, call it what you will, and at the same time a taste for adventure and speculation.

Myself
To follow Him without hesitation, I sacrificed my family, my friends, my wealth and my position. I have always had a sort of scientific or psychological curiosity, call it what you will, as well as a taste for adventure and risk.

*The punctuation is odd in the first sentence. Is Judas saying “In order to follow him without hesistation (ie straight away), I sacrificed blah, blah or is he saying, “In order to follow him I had no hesitation in sacrificing blah, blah. There is a difference in meaning . In the first meaning its as though Judas does not have time to make a decision, he can't hesitate and so he ends up sacrificing everything. In the second meaning he would be saying: “I did not give a second thought to sacrificing blah, blah. If it was the first meaning PC should have put a comma after “... hesiter..”. If it was the second meaning he should have put a comma after “..suivre...” No comma anywhere so the translator has to guess! The first meaning sounds as if Judas is bemoaning the fact that he was forced to make a split second decision – he was not given time to consider and because of the split second decision he lost everything. The second meaning sounds as if he realised the value of following Jesus and because of that was willing to make these sacrifices. Which meaning paints Judas in the worst light? The first one. So that it the one I have chosen. (The UT has gone for the second meaning.)

*“...un goût d'aventure et de spéculation.” Spéculation/Speculation. Similar word and similar meanings in both languages. There are two meaning in both languages: to gamble / to make guesses (actually quite similar in meaning). “....a taste for …...speculation...” just does not sound right to me in English. I think you would say “...a taste for risk...” « ie. « a risk taker ») so that is what I have used.

Paul Claudel
Toutes ces histoires de perle inestimable, de domaines mystérieux on ne sait ou qui rapporte cent pour un, de Royaume imminent dont les charges nous seront distribuées, il faut avouer que tout cela était de nature à enflammer dans le cœur d'un jeune homme les plus nobles ambitions. J'ai mordu à l’hameçon.

Unknown Translator
All those stories of a pearl of great value, of mysterious property somewhere or other which yields one hundred to one, of a Kingdom at hand whose custody will be given to us, I have to confess that all of that was of such a nature as to ignite in the heart of a young man the noblest ambitions. I took the bait in my mouth.

Myself
All those stories of priceless pearls, of far off domains which yield a hundred to one, of a Kingdom coming which we will have a share in governing, one has to admit that it was all the kind of thing to kindle the noblest ambitions in the heart of a young man, . I swallowed it hook, line and sinker.

* “..perle inestimable...” the literal translation is “pearl you cannot put a value on”. “D'une valeur inestimable” is exactly equivalent in meaning to “priceless” which is what I have used.

* Should it be “pearl” or “pearls”? The literal translation of “histoires de perle” is "stories of a pearl". In English I think we would say "Pearl stories" which could mean either "stories about a pearl....etc" or "stories about pearls..... etc". Can a single pearl be priceless? Apparently it can, A necklace with a single pearl given by Richard Burton to Elizabeth Taylor recently came up at auction and fetched 11 million dollars although there were was a sack load of rubies and diamonds on the piece as well.

“... mystérieux......on ne sai ou....” I have used “far off” for this as in “far off lands”. If I had not used this I would have used “who knows where?”. I definitely would not have used “..somewhere or other..” as the UT has done.

* “domaines”. The UT has translated “domain” by “property” which is one of the possible meanings in French - as in parcel of land or estate. Another possible meaning is the English “domain”, as in - an area that I have dominion over, which is what I have used.

* “Royaume imminent”. “Imminent” literally means “about to happen” or “coming”. I have put “coming” because its the correct meaning but also because it has the resonance of the Lord's Prayer: “...thy Kingdom Come, on earth... etc”.

* “.......dont les charges nous seront distribuées......” Les “charges” has 10 different meanings according to my Collins/Robert. Judas means “administrative office”. In other words he thinks the “Kingdom” is a material kingdom and the disciples will each be given a high position in its government.

* “J'ai mordu a l’hameçon.” Literally means “I bit at the hook”. This is a French colloquial expression which calls for an equivalent colloquial expression in English. I could also have used “I took the bait”. The UT has used, “I took the bait in my mouth.” I have never heard that used as a colloquial expression. Why add “.......in my mouth?” Its completely redundant and just makes the phrase sound stilted.

Paul Claudel
D’ailleurs je ne suis pas le seul à m’être laissé prendre. Il y avait tous ces bon racleurs de poissons. Mais d'autre part je voyais des personnalités abondantes et considérées comme Lazare, des femmes du monde, des autorités en Israel comme Joseph et Nicodème se prosterner a Ses pieds.

Unknown Translator
Moreover I wasn't the only one to let myself be caught. There were all those fine fish scrapers. And besides I saw many wealthy and important personalities like Lazarus, society women, authorities in Israel like Joseph and Nicodemus prostrating themselves at His feet.

Myself
Moreover , I was not the only one who got caught. There were all those fine rakers of fish. There was also the fact that I saw respected people of substance like Lazarus, socialites and people of authority in Israel like Joseph and Nicodemus prostrating themselves at his feet.

* “... ces bon racleurs de poissons...” “Racler” means “to scrape or to rake”. The way Judas uses it here is not alluding to scraping fish. He means the action of raking the waters with a net or trawling. Raking for fish sounds a bit strange but I think it does also in French. I could have just used “fishermen” but there is an implied contempt in Judas's description so that has to be kept in.

Paul Claudel
On ne sait jamais. Après tout, depuis que les Romains sont arrivés on peut dire que l'on a vu de toutes les couleurs. Moi, j'ai voulu savoir au juste ce qu'il en était et suivre la chose de bout en bout.

UT
You can never tell. After all, since the Romans came, you could say we have seen every type possible. Well, I wanted to know exactly what it was about and see it through.

Myself
One can never tell. After all, since the Romans arrived we have really been put through it. Me, well I just wanted to know what it was all about and see it right through to the end.

“faire voire de toutes les couleurs” is a colloquial expression which means “to give someone a hard time.” I think the UT guessed here and I think she guessed wrong.

Paul Claudel
J'ose dire que parmi les Douze c’était moi de beaucoup le plus instruit et le plus distingué. J’étais un crédit pour la troupe.

UT
I might say that among the Twelve, I was by far the most cultivated and the most refined. I was a credit to the group.

Myself
I dare say that among the twelve I was by far the most educated and distinguished. I was a credit to the outfit.

*“... instruit...” means “...educated...” I see no reason to use cultivated. I should imagine that the fishermen had little education, yet alone culture so Judas would stand out perfectly well just by being a bit better educated.

*For “.... distingué...” you could use distinguished or refined. I prefere “distinguished” because it has more of a connotation of appearance and I'm sure PC would attribute vanity about his appearance to Judas in addition to all his other vanities.

“....la troupe...” This can mean the army in general (this meaning not mentioned in my dictionary by the way), a unit of the army or a group of performers (acrobats, dancers etc) . You would rarely use it in the sense of just a group. Judas (PC) could have used “le groupe” which translates straightforwardly into “the group”. I think Judas is here using it mainly in the sense of a unit of the army. I think its another example of how Judas has completely got hold of the wrong end of the stick - just as he sees himself being promoted “Apostle” as if it was some kind of military grade. I think this Judas would like to see himself as being part of a crack military unit so I think “outfit” is a good translation here.

Paul Claudel
Évidemment, il y avait Simon Pierre, on n'aurait pas eu le cœur de le chasser ou de lui refuser la première place. Il n'y avait qu' à regarder ses bons yeux de chien affectueux, et cette grimace d'enfant qui va pleurer quand on lui adressait des reproches, ça lui arrivait plus souvent qu'a son tour.

Unknown Translator
Of course, there was Simon Peter and no one would have had the heart to send him away or to refuse him first place. You had only to look at his good eyes of an affectionate dog, and that face of a child who is going to cry when you scold him. That happened to him more often than he deserved.

Myself
Of course Simon Peter was there, no-one would have had the heart to chase him away or refuse him first place. You would only have to look at those faithful doggy eyes and that frown of a child who is going to burst into tears when scolded, and he had more than his fair share of scoldings.

*UT: “....his good eyes of an affectionate dog....” (?!!) Come on UT! Can you imagine Paul Claudel writing that if he was a native English speaker? Its terrible! I think my “...faithful doggy eyes....” captures the sense and the tone perfectly. Why faithful? “A four legged friend, a four legged friend, he'll never let you down. He's honest and faithful..... etc. etc. » (Roy Rogers)

UT: “That happened to him more often than he deserved.” OK. Its a reasonable translation but an English writer would reach straight for the idiomatic, “... more than his fair share...” surely?

Paul Claudel
Moi, j'ai toujours été correct. J'avais mon service, il n'y avait pas à m'en demander plus. Autrement c'est le désordre.

UT
I always kept to the rules. I had my duties and no one asked me to do any more. Otherwise there would have been disorder.

Myself
Me, I was always proper. I did my duty, you could not ask for more. Otherwise things become disorderly.

**Moi, j'ai toujours été correct.* I think you can translate the “me” for “moi” here to get a flavour of colloquial speech (and Judas uses many colloquial expressions), although in English you could make a case for translating it as “Me? I....”

“..... été correct.” This to me has connotations of a “jobsworth” needing to stick to petty rules and regulations. One more example of how JC's Judas has completely missed the point. One gets the sense that if there were any petty rules and regulations in the life of the Disciples it would have been Judas who made them up! I have no quarrel with UT's translation of “I always kept to the rules.” I have used “...always proper”. Because I think it gives the same sense as “..correct..” of moral indignation (See Eric Fromm) always lurking beneath the surface, ready to appear at any infringement of the jobsworth's imagined demarcation lines.

* “ J'avais mon service,...” UT and I are both guessing that this means the allocated chores of each disciple. “Service” could also mean a set of crockery but I don't think it means that here.

Paul Claudel
On appréciait tout de même mon jugement, mes manières, ma connaissance du monde et des Écritures, mon savoir-faire avec les clients. J'ai été un des premiers à passer Apôtre, un de ceux à qui on a passé une corde autour du cou, ce que vous appelez maintenant une étole.

UT
All the same, they were appreciative of my judgment, my manners, my knowledge of the world and of Holy Scripture, my tact with clients. I was one of the first to be promoted Apostle, one of those around whose neck they placed a rope, and which you now call a stole.

Myself
Anyway, my judgement, my manners, my knowledge of the world and of the scriptures and my skill with handling customers were all appreciated. I was one of the first to pass the grade of Apostle, one of those to whom one placed a rope around the neck – what you would call a stole nowadays.

*UT and my translation of the first sentence are similar except for “.... les clients”. “Clients” in French translates straighforwardly into “customers”. In English, “clients” is just a posh word for customers. I see no reason to use the posh word but thats just a minor quibble. (Another example of how this Judas completely misses the point, seeing the lame and sick who Jesus healed as “customers”. There is also an underlying, implied contempt both for Jesus and the sick.)

*I think the UT and I have both understood that JC's Judas sees “Apostle” as some sort of military grade which gives the sense that a) Judas sees the world divided into fine gradations of hierarchy and that his major preoccupation is where his place is in that hierarchy. b) Judas has completely missed the point.

*Rope/stole. I must confess I have not really understood what Judas (PC) is alluding to here. There is no confusion surround the word “.. étole..” Its a straightforward translation to stole. I think perhaps this is some gallows humour from (Judas) PC, alluding to Judas's later fate of suicide by hanging but its a bit of a stretch (no pun intended) to imagine that passing a rope around the neck was some sort of ceremony for the Apostles. PC's Judas is full of nonsense so I think PC is imagining him making up such some sort of Apostle passing out ceremony as a grim allusion to his later fate. Whatever the exact meaning, the French phrase is perfectly straightforward and calls for a straightforward translation in English so both the UT and I are off the hook on that one!

To contact me about a translation, email: frenchintoenglish5@gmail.com (I don't take phone calls because they break my concentration when working.) Emails are often answered within half an hour.

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